List of Papers
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Highlights: We explore the process of how consumers rationalize brands (products and people) that do bad things. Sometimes consumers (in their minds) pull apart the brand from the bad behavior in order to continue supporting it. Sometimes they don’t. This research identifies when why and how this works and what it means for brands that may be faced with a moral crisis.
Bhattacharjee, Amit, Jonathan Z. Berman, and Americus Reed, II (forthcoming) “Tip of the Hat, Wag of the Finger: How Moral Decoupling Enables Consumers to Admire and Admonish,” Journal of Consumer Research.
Highlights: We review the vast literature on identity and discuss the major take-aways that have emerged from this literature since its beginning. Based on this, we set forth a framework to think about market phenomena that is caused by identity related concerns. There are several key ideas that emerge that comprise five principals of identity that we discuss in the context of future research.
Reed II, Americus, Mark Forehand, Stefano Puntoni and Luk Warlop, (2012) “Identity-Based Consumer Behavior”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29, 310-321.
Highlights: Although more disengaged U.S. residents are more supportive of war, two studies show that they are also less supportive of foreign humanitarian aid, particularly when American identity is salient and a more global identity, such as moral identity, is not.
Finnel, Stephanie, Americus Reed II, and Karl Aquino (2011) "Promoting Multiple Policies to the Public: The Difficulties of Simultaneously Promoting War and Foreign Humanitarian Aid," Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 30(2), 246-263.
Highlights: Online advertising targeting and obtrusiveness boost purchase intent independently, but not jointly. We comment on the substantive importance of this finding by discussing the psychological and economic implications of the effect.
Lodish, Len and Americus Reed II, (2011) “When is Less More and How Much More? Thoughts on the Psychological and Economic Implications of Online Targeting and Obtrusiveness,” Invited Discussant Paper, Marketing Science, 30(3), 405–408.
Highlights: This paper documents implicit consumer self-concept assimilation (contrast) to age-based imagery when the discrepancy between the self-concept and advertisement imagery was moderate (extreme).
Forehand, Mark R., Andrew Perkins and Americus Reed II (2011), “When are automatic social comparisons not automatic? The effect of cognitive systems on user imagery-based self-concept activation.” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(1), 88-100.
Highlights: In short, adolescent moral identity mediated relations between parenting and the ways in which adolescents oriented others in their psychological space.
Hardy, Sam, Amit Bhattacharjee, Americus Reed, II and Karl Aquino (2010) “Moral Identity and Psychological Distance: The Case of Adolescent Parental Socialization,” Journal of Adolescence, 33, 111-123.
Highlights: This article proposes and tests a social-cognitive framework for examining the joint influence of situational factors and the centrality of moral identity on moral intentions and behaviors. The authors hypothesized that if a situational factor increases the current accessibility of moral identity within the working self-concept, then it strengthens the motivation to act morally.
Aquino, Karl, Dan Freeman, Americus Reed II, Vivien Lim and Will Felps(2009) “Testing a Social-Cognitive Model of Moral Behavior: The Interactive Influence of Situations and Moral Identity Centrality”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 123-144.
Highlights: Two studies investigated the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of commonly recognized forms of aggression (FOA) that could be used to efficiently gather aggression data in large samples.
Verona, Edelyn, Naomi Sadeh, Steve Case, Americus Reed II and Amit Bhattacharjee (2008) “Self-Reported Use of Different Forms of Aggression in Late Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood” Assessment, 15 (4), 493-510.
Highlights: This article describes several field and laboratory experiments that investigate an identity congruency effect on donations. When identities match, people give more. The authors conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and substantive implications of these findings.
Shang, Jen, Americus Reed, II and Rachel Croson (2008), “Identity Congruency Effects on Donations,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 351-361.
Highlights: This research investigates consumer reactions to the marketing of drugs and supplements and the consequences for a healthy lifestyle. A series of experiments provides evidence that drug marketing undermines intentions to engage in health protective behaviors.
Bolton, LisaE., Americus Reed II, Kevin Volppand Katrina Armstrong(2008) “How Does Drug And Supplement Marketing Affect A Healthy Lifestyle?” Journal of Consumer Research 34(5), 713-726.
Highlights: Two studies examine the extent to which moral identity and moral disengagement jointly drive reactions to war.
Aquino, Karl, Americus Reed II, Stefan Thau, and Dan Freeman (2007) “A Grotesque and Dark Beauty: How Moral Identity and Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Influence Cognitive and Emotional Reactions to War,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43, 385-392.
Highlights: In several studies, the authors examine the potential to leverage a consumer’s moral identity to enhance brand and company identification and promote goodwill through community relations.
Reed II, Americus, Karl Aquino, and Eric Levy(2007) “Moral Identity and Judgments of Charitable Behaviors.” Journal of Marketing 71(1), 178-193.
Highlights: We examined the role of stress exposure on gender differences in hostile (emotional and behavioral) reactions within the context of a laboratory paradigm. These findings are discussed in terms of differential overt manifestations of distress between men and women.
Verona, Edelyn, Americus Reed II, John Curtin and Michele Pole (2007) “Gender differences in emotional and overt/covert aggressive responses to stress.” Aggressive Behavior, 33(1), 261-271.
Highlights: We examined the role of negative reciprocity in interpreting and reacting to the prison abuses at Abu Ghraib.
Eder, Paul, Karl Aquino, Carl Turner and Americus Reed II (2006) “Punishing Those Responsible For the Prison Abuses at Abu Ghraib: The Influence of the Negative Reciprocity Norm (NRN).” Political Psychology, 27(6), 807-821.
Highlights: This is an invited response to several authors who critique the MPAA 2006a Cohen and Reed model.
Cohen, Joel B. and Americus Reed II (2006b) “Perspectives on Parsimony: How Long is the Coast of England? A Reply to Park and MacInnis (2006), Schwartz (2006), Petty (2006) and Lynch (2006)” Journal of Consumer Research, 33 (1), 28-30.
Highlights: We introduce the MPAA model which emphasizes multiple pathways to attitude formation, including outside-in (object-centered) and inside-out (person-centered) pathways. This is a novel model of how people can form and rely on different attitudes toward the same object.
Cohen, Joel B. and Americus Reed II (2006a) “A Multiple Pathway Anchoring and Adjustment (MPAA) Model of Attitude Generation and Recruitment.” Journal of Consumer Research, 33(1), 1-15.
Highlights: This paper examines evaluative judgments about an African-American beneficiary of affirmative action (AA) in two studies.
Aquino Karl, Marcus Stewart and Americus Reed II (2005) “How Social Dominance Orientation and Job Status Influence Perceptions of African-American Affirmative Action Beneficiaries.” Personnel Psychology, 58, 703-744.
Highlights: In this paper, we discuss the importance of how to create "brand identity loyalty" and why it is different than just considering psychographic segmentation in some abstract way.
Reed II, Americus and Lisa E. Bolton (2005) “The Complexity of Identity” Sloan Management Review, spring, Vol. 46, No. 3, 17-22.
Highlights: This research examines the perseverance of identity-based judgments by exploring the effectiveness of various corrective procedures that are intended to neutralize identity effects on judgment.
Bolton, Lisa E and Americus Reed II (2004), "Sticky Priors: The Perseverance of Identity Effects on Judgment" Journal of Marketing Research, 41(4), November, 397-410.
Highlights: Two studies examine the identity salience construct in a judgment formation context. These results are discussed in terms of how they extend prior work on social identity, product preference formation, and attitude change.
“Activating the Self-Importance of Consumer Selves: Exploring Identity Salience Effects on Judgments” Journal of Consumer Research, 31, (2) 286-295.
Highlights: Two studies support the usefulness of susceptibility to normative influence (SNI) as a predictor of protective self-presentation—efforts to avoid undesirable or assailable self-presentations that may lead to disapproval. Overall, these findings suggest that high SNI consumers are averse to calling attention to themselves, especially when doing so may lead to disapproval.
Wooten, David B. and Americus Reed II (2004), “Playing it Safe: Susceptibility to Normative Influence and Protective Self-Presentation.” Journal of Consumer Research. 31(3) 551-556.
Highlights: This article examines moral identity and reactions to out-groups during intergroup conflict. Results are discussed in terms of self-regulatory mechanisms that mitigate in-group favoritism and out-group hostility.
Reed II, Americus and Karl Aquino (2003), “Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard towards out-groups.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 84(6) 1270-1286.
Highlights: A series of experimental studies using adolescents, university students, and adults measured the associations among the self-importance of moral identity, moral cognitions, and behavior.
Aquino, Karl and Americus Reed II (2002). “The Self-importance of Moral Identity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83(6), 1423-1440.
Highlights: We examined how identity primes and social distinctiveness influence identity salience (i.e., the activation of a social identity within an individual’s social self-schema) and subsequent responses to targeted advertising.
Forehand, Mark R., Rohit Deshpande and Americus Reed II (2002). “Identity salience and the influence of differential activation of the social self-schema on advertising response.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(6) 1086-1099.
Highlights: Recent work on social identity is a particularly meaningful paradigm to adopt for consumer research that implicates the self. This argument is developed with a conceptual discussion of major self-concept issues as well as an overview of basic self-concept paradigms in psychology.
Reed II, Americus (2002). “Social Identity as a Useful Perspective for Self-concept based Consumer Research.” Psychology and Marketing, 19(3), Lead Article, 235-266.
Highlights: This article investigates factors that affect whether people will construct attitudes based on external information from others, their own direct experience, or some combination of the two. Evidence from two studies suggests that consumers’ salient goals and the order and degree of favor-ability associated with the two types of information (external vs. experiential) are factors that may jointly determine attitude construction.
Reed II, Americus, David B. Wooten and Lisa E. Bolton (2002). “The temporary construction of consumer attitudes”. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 12(4) 375-388.
Highlights: We advance a model and framework that is a conceptual overview of the effects of self-presentational concerns on focus group participation. It is intended to help guide focus group work for theorists and practitioners.
Wooten, David B. and Americus Reed II (2000). “A Conceptual Overview of Self-Presentational Concerns and Response Tendencies in Focus Group Participants.” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(3), 141-153.
Highlights: This article examines how others’ opinions can influence a consumer’s evaluation of a product. The experiments suggest that informational social influence obeys information processing principles associated with other kinds of private judgments.
Wooten, David B. and Americus Reed II (1998). “Informational Influence and the Ambiguity of Product Experience: Order Effects on the Weighting of Evidence.” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 7(1), 79-99.
Highlights: This study investigates groups’ ability to manage resources under high and low scarcity. We offer a contingency model to reconcile competing predictions in the literature: Cooperative group behavior is moderated by group communication and the distribution of resources.
Aquino, Karl and Americus Reed II (1998). “A Social Dilemma Perspective on Cooperative Behavior in Organizations: The Effects of Scarcity, Communication, and Unequal Access on the Use of a Shared Resource.” Group and Organization Management. 23(4), 390-413.
Highlights: The influence of consumer identity on product evaluation generally depends on the momentary salience of the identity (how much the consumer is temporarily thinking about the identity) and how relevant the identity is at the moment a consumer judgment is called for. We discuss how this works in a short managerial summary.
Reed, II Americus and Mark Forehand (2012). Consumer Identity and Purchase Behavior. In J. Alba (Ed.), Consumer Insights: Findings from Behavioral Research, Marketing Science Institute (MSI).
Highlights: We propose a model of identity salience and threat that intentionally defines threats in terms of specific associations. For example, when a man hears a statements like “all men are pigs” the association of his gender with positive valence is threatened. On the other hand, when he is told “you are a poor excuse for a man” his association of self with male is challenged without saying anything positive or negative about being a man. As we will show conceptually, analyzing the threat in terms of specific associations enables more refined theoretical predictions for when and why threatening salient identities can produce identity approach or identity avoidance. In addition, the proposed model identifies important mediating mechanisms yet to be examined.
Angle, Justin W., Mark Forehand and Americus Reed II (2012), “When Does Identity Salience Prime Approach and Avoidance: A Balance Congruity Model,” In A. Ruvio and R. Belk, editors, Identity and Consumption.
Highlights: In this book chapter we further elaborate on a Social Identity Pathway to Attitudes and Liking. This is a follow up paper to the JCR paper that outlines the broader Cohen and Reed MPAA model.
Reed, II Americus, Joel B. Cohen and Amit Bhattacharjee (2009), “When brands are built from within: A social identity pathway to liking and evaluation.” Debbie MacInnis, C. Whan Park and Joe Priester, (Eds.) New Frontiers in Branding: Attitudes, Attachments and Relationships: Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference.
Highlights: We develop a model that explains how dual attitudes towards target members of out-groups influence fairness judgments of social policies that are designed to assist members of these groups.
Aquino, Karl, Americus Reed, II, Marcus Stewart and Debra Shapiro (2005), “Self-Regulatory Identity Theory and Reactions Toward Fairness Enhancing Organizational Policies.” S. Diener, Ed. What Motivates Fairness in Organizations? Research in Social Issues in Management pg. 129-148.
Highlights: This article analyzes the many disparate streams of identity research, synthesizes the literature and highlights the most promising conceptual avenues for future social identity research in consumer behavior. A model of how people manage their multiple identities is presented.
Reed II, Americus, Mark Forehand, “A Model of Identity Salience,” to be submitted to a journal shortly.
Highlights: This paper shows how to change attitudes NOT by changing beliefs, but by creating an alternative "dual" attitude based on identity. This paper discusses the factors that lead to the situation where a person can have two different attitudes toward the same object, with both available to guide behavior.
Reed II, Americus, James E.B. Wilkie and Joel B. Cohen “When Identity and Object-Based Pathways Can Lead to Multiple Attitudes,” to be submitted to a journal shortly.
Highlights: In this paper we demonstrate gender differences in how men vs. women give when they consider their morality. Women (but not men) give more when their moral self is primed, and this appears to be happen because it makes women reach more towards an ideal sense of their moral self.
Shang, Jen and Americus Reed, II “Moral Identity, Giving and Gender,” to be submitted to a journal shortly.
Highlights: Consumers rely upon lay theories of medicine (i.e. naïve explanations that differ from scientific explanations) when making decisions regarding health remedies. Two lay beliefs lead consumers to engage in more unhealthy behavior after viewing health remedy marketing—a boomerang effect, since health remedies are intended to improve health outcomes.
Bolton, Lisa, Amit Bhattacharjee and Americus Reed, II (2015) “The Perils of Marketing Weight-Management Remedies and the Role of Health Literacy”. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing Paper, 34(1), 50-62.
Highlights: This article integrates research on time vs. money effects and identity. We argue that when consumers’ moral identity is activated, consumers are more motivated to connect with others, leading to reduced aversion to giving time, because giving time (unlike money) more strongly fosters basic human needs such as interpersonal connection, meaningfulness and happiness.
Reed II, Americus, Adam Kay, Stephanie Finnel, Karl Aquino and Eric Levy (forthcoming) “I Don’t Want the Money, I Just Want Your Time: How Moral Identity Overcomes the Aversion to Giving Time to Pro-Social Causes”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Highlights: Four studies assess the psychometric properties of Aquino and Reed’s (2002) self-importance of moral identity (SIMI) scale. Results are discussed in terms of current moral psychology and social identity measurement issues.
Reed II, Americus, Ivan Sucharski and Karl Aquino “Further Theoretical and Empirical Refinement of the Self-Importance of Moral Identity (SIMI) Scale.” Working Paper.
Highlights: The study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the self-concept may play an important role in shaping hypertension sufferers’ adherence decisions. Based on these findings, recommendations are made to assist physicians and drug marketers in increasing patient compliance.
Stephanie Finnel, Americus Reed, II, Kevin Volpp and Katrina Armstrong “The Joint Influence of Past, Present and Future selves on Hypertension medication compliance.”
Highlights: Message-incongruent culture cues (e.g., seeing an ethnic targeted ad after exposure to mainstream culture cues or seeing a mainstream ad after exposure to ethnic culture cues) led bi-culturals to less positive evaluations of spokespersons and lower donation behavior.
Lenoir, Anne-Sophie I., Stefano Puntoni, Americus Reed, II and Peeter Verlegh “The impact of cultural symbols and spokesperson identity on attitudes and intentions,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, V. 30 (2013) 426–428.